Suspension

Specific classification of non independent suspension

Leaf spring dependent suspension

Leaf spring is used as the elastic element of non independent suspension. Because it also plays the role of guiding mechanism, the suspension system is greatly simplified. This suspension is widely used in the front and rear suspension of freight cars. The leaf spring is fixed on the axle with U-shaped bolts in the middle. The front end of the suspension is a fixed hinge, also known as dead lifting lug. The rolling ear part at the front end of the leaf spring is connected with the front support of the leaf spring by the leaf spring pin, and a bushing is installed in the rolling ear hole at the front end to reduce friction. The rear end rolling lug is connected with the rear end lifting lug and the lifting lug frame through the leaf spring lifting lug pin, and the rear end can swing freely to form a movable lifting lug. When the frame is deformed by the impact spring, the distance between the two ears may change.

Steel spring dependent suspension

Shock absorbers are not necessarily installed on the front suspension and the rear suspension in order to improve the ride comfort of the train.

Main and auxiliary leaf spring dependent suspension

The load on the rear suspension of the truck varies greatly due to the different actual loading capacity of the vehicle. In order to keep the natural frequency of the vehicle body changing very little, the stiffness of the suspension should be variable. In order to realize this function, the general measure is to install an auxiliary spring in the rear suspension.

Main and auxiliary leaf spring dependent suspension

As shown in the figure, when the load is small, only the main spring works. When the load continues to increase until the auxiliary spring is in contact with the support, the two springs act at the same time to increase the total stiffness of the suspension to ensure that the natural frequency changes little. However, at the moment when the auxiliary spring acts, the suspension stiffness suddenly increases, which is unfavorable to the vehicle ride comfort.

Coil spring dependent suspension

As an elastic element, coil spring can only bear vertical load, so its suspension system should be equipped with guide mechanism and shock absorber. Generally, it is only used as the rear suspension of car.

Air Spring Dependent Suspension

When the vehicle is driving, the suspension stiffness is required to change with the change of load and road surface. When the vehicle is empty, the vehicle body is raised, and when the vehicle is full, the vehicle body is pressed very low, which will hit the buffer block. Therefore, different requirements are put forward for different types of vehicles. Mines and large buses require that the body height of empty and full vehicles changes little; For cars, it is required to reduce the body height and increase the speed on good roads; Improving the body on bad roads can increase the passing capacity. Therefore, the height of the vehicle body can be adjusted according to the use requirements.

Air spring independent suspension can easily realize the automatic adjustment of body height. Generally, this purpose is achieved by changing the air pressure in the air spring with different loads.

Hydro pneumatic spring dependent suspension

Compared with other springs, it has the characteristics of small volume, light weight, strong bearing capacity, easy to adjust the height of the vehicle body, damping, vibration reduction and self lubrication. Compared with the traditional passive suspension, the basic function is the same, but the hydraulic transmission control technology is added to form the difference from the traditional passive suspension.

The advantages are that it has nonlinear variable stiffness and nonlinear damping characteristics, and is easy to adjust the height of the vehicle body. The unit energy storage of hydro pneumatic spring is larger than that of other springs. Because the shock absorber is placed in the suspension cylinder, it is not necessary to manufacture a special shock absorber; With rigid locking, the vehicle can bear large load

Hydro pneumatic suspension has many advantages. The corresponding disadvantage is that the manufacturing and maintenance cost is high, and additional control devices need to be configured for control.

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