Part 1: brake pedal
Compared with the larger lever assistance of civil vehicles (the basic model design is 1:10 to 1:15, that is, 10N braking force on the foot is converted to 100N vacuum booster), the assistance of F1 racing car is very little. The driver needs to apply 1600n about 160kg pedal force on the foot to produce 6G deceleration.
Compared with the same period, the minimum requirements of civil vehicle regulations: 500N, about 50kg pedal force, with a minimum deceleration of 0.6g. It can be seen that the ferocity of F1 driver’s left foot.
Part 2: master cylinder
Different from the civil vehicle, two oil pots and two master cylinders are used to distinguish the front and rear axles, while the civil vehicle uses one oil pot and two superimposed master cylinders to cover the X-type circuit (the actual civil vehicle oil pot is internally designed with a baffle to prevent the leakage of all brake fluid after the leakage of one brake pipeline).
The difference is that the front axle of F1 car uses traditional hydraulic braking and the rear wheel uses energy recovery braking; Considering the structural layout of the whole vehicle and the safety of single axle failure, the traditional “II” layout has rarely been seen in the braking system layout of civil cars. Nowadays, the mainstream civil cars adopt the “X” axis layout to provide higher braking stability in case of single axle failure.
The internal structure is consistent with that of civil models. Similar to the needle cylinder for injection, the brake fluid in the brake fluid pot is squeezed into the brake pipeline.
Part 3: wheel cylinder (caliper)
The biggest difference in structure is that floating calipers are used in mainstream civil vehicles and multi piston fixed calipers are used in F1 racing / high-performance vehicles.
Advantages of opposed piston fixed caliper compared with floating piston caliper:
Compared with the cast iron floating caliper, the multi piston fixed caliper is forged with aluminum alloy or titanium alloy, which has smaller mass and reduces the unsprung mass.
Compared with the floating caliper relying on the reaction force acting on the brake pad on the other side, the braking force is applied on both sides of the multi piston fixed caliper, and the corresponding braking speed is faster.
The floating caliper body support acts on the upper part, while the multi movable plug fixed caliper support is on both sides, which has higher overall strength.
Multi piston fixed caliper setting multi piston (F1 is 3 on one side, a total of 6) setting, the force acting on the back plate of the friction plate is more uniform and the braking efficiency is higher.
Multi piston fixed caliper setting multi piston (F1 is 3 on one side, 6 in total) setting can enlarge the brake pad area and increase the braking area of friction plate and brake disc.
The opposed piston fixed caliper is not a panacea, and its disadvantages are as follows:
Cost, for civil vehicles, the manufacturing cost increases greatly.
The heat dissipation efficiency is lower than that of floating caliper, which increases the braking area of friction plate and brake disc and brings smaller wind impact area at the same time.
Therefore, F1 racing car (in fact, it can be seen in high-performance RV or other racing cars) has designed a special ventilation duct of the braking system to increase the heat dissipation efficiency of the braking system under high load.
At the same time, the NAO friction plate and cast iron brake disc of traditional cars can not meet the braking requirements under high load conditions. The braking system of F1 racing car is upgraded to ceramic carbon fiber products, which can still ensure sufficient friction under the condition of thousands of degrees Celsius.
Ceramic friction plate
Ceramic carbon fiber brake disc
Part 4: rear wheel energy recovery system
As mentioned earlier, the rear axle energy recovery braking system of F1 racing car is similar to the new energy energy recovery system.
Blue: brake pedal force simulation area
As the name suggests, when the brake pedal is pressed, the brake fluid in the pipeline will push a piston to produce resistance, which is used to simulate the foot feeling of normal braking.
Red: brake fluid absorption area
The energy storage chamber (similar to a reservoir) absorbs the brake pressure established by the driver and “temporarily” the originally high-pressure brake fluid into the energy storage chamber, reducing or even isolating the brake fluid entering the rear wheel brake.
Green: motor energy recovery control area
This is the ECU for energy recovery. It obtains the brake pressure and established by the driver on the pedal through the sensor, calculates the driver’s target deceleration, and coordinates the motor to respond to the rear wheel motor reverse drag energy recovery.
Purple: energy recovery failure backup area
After the failure of the racing car energy recovery system, close the pipeline entering the pedal force simulator and the brake fluid energy storage chamber through the marked solenoid valve, so that the brake fluid can directly enter the rear wheel caliper, so as to ensure the braking deceleration and driver safety.
Go kart accessories
Part 1: brake pedal