The wishbone suspension is divided into single wishbone suspension and double wishbone suspension.
Single wishbone suspension
The characteristic of this independent suspension is that when the suspension is deformed, the wheel plane will tilt and change the distance between the wheels on both sides and the contact point of the road – the track width, resulting in the lateral slip of the tire relative to the ground, damaging the adhesion between the tire and the ground, and the tire is seriously worn. In addition, when the suspension is used for the steering wheel, it will greatly change the kingpin inclination and wheel camber, which has a certain impact on the steering operation. Therefore, it is rarely used in the front suspension at present. However, because of its simple, compact structure and convenient layout, it is also used in heavy off-road vehicles with low speed. For example, the front suspension of tetra 138 and 148 off-road vehicles is this single wishbone independent suspension, and its elastic element is torsion bar spring.
In the above structure, the rear axle half shaft sleeve 8 is disconnected, and there is a single hinge 4 on the right side of the main reducer, around which the half shaft can swing. An hydro pneumatic elastic element 2 which can adjust the horizontal state of the vehicle body is arranged on the main reducer, which bears and transmits the vertical force together with the coil spring 7. The longitudinal force acting on the wheel is mainly borne by the longitudinal push rod 6. The intermediate support 3 can not only bear the lateral force, but also partially bear the longitudinal force. When the wheels bounce up and down, in order to avoid motion interference, the front end of the longitudinal thrust rod is connected with the vehicle body with a ball hinge.
double wishbone suspension
The length of two swing arms of double wishbone suspension can be equal or unequal.
In the suspension with the same length of two swing arms, when the wheels jump up and down, the wheel plane does not tilt, but the track width changes greatly, which will increase the possibility of wheel lateral slip. In the suspension with unequal length of two swing arms, if the length of two arms is properly selected, the angle between wheel and kingpin and the change of wheel track can not be too large. Minor track change can be adapted by tire deformation when the tire is soft. At present, passenger car tires can allow the change of track to reach 4 ~ 5mm on each wheel without sliding along the road. Therefore, the unequal length double wishbone suspension is widely used in the front wheels of cars.