(1) Leaf spring: it is composed of multiple steel plates with unequal length and curvature. After installation, both ends naturally bend upward. In addition to the buffering effect, the leaf spring also has a certain damping effect. When arranged longitudinally, it also has the function of guiding and transmitting force. Non independent suspension mostly uses leaf spring as elastic element, which can save guide device and shock absorber, and has simple structure.
(2) Coil spring: it only has cushioning effect and is mostly used for independent suspension device of car. Since there is no function of vibration reduction and force transmission, special shock absorber and guide device must be set.
(3) Hydro pneumatic spring: with gas as the elastic medium and liquid as the force transmission medium, it not only has good cushioning capacity, but also has the effect of vibration reduction. At the same time, it can also adjust the height of the frame. It is suitable for heavy vehicles and buses.
(4) Torsion bar spring: one end of the torsion bar made of spring bar is fixed on the frame, and the other end is connected with the wheel through the swing arm. The torsion deformation of the torsion bar plays a buffer role when the wheel jumps, which is suitable for independent suspension.