Body

Car body structure diagram and main parts

The car body is assembled by welding a variety of skeleton parts and plates, and the skeleton parts and plates of the car body are mostly stamped with steel plates
The body frame parts and plates play a very important role in the safety and driving comfort of the car
Three compartment car body structure diagram main parts:
1,Engine cover 2, front fender 3, front wall upper cover plate 4, cowl panel 5, roof cover 6, front pillar 7, upper side beam 8, top cover side plate 9, rear wall upper cover plate 10, trunk lid 11, rear pillar 12, rear quarter panel 13, rear fender 14, center pillar 15, door 16, lower side beam 17, bottom plate 18, front fender 19, front longitudinal beam 20, front cross beam 21, front apron 22, radiator frame 23 and front support plate of engine cover
The frame parts and plates of the car body are mostly stamped with steel plates. The special steel plate for the car body has the characteristics of deep drawing delay and not easy to crack. According to different positions of the vehicle body, zinc steel plate shall be used for some parts to prevent rust, such as fender, roof cover, etc; High strength steel plates are used in some parts with high stress, such as
Radiator support beam, upper side beam, etc. The thickness of steel plate commonly used in car body structure is 0.6 ~ 3mm, and the thickness of most parts is 0.8 ~ 1.0mm.
In the car body structure, the location of some important parts is related to the overall layout, safety and driving comfort of the vehicle, such as columns.
Generally, the car body has three columns, which are front column (a column), middle column (B column) and rear column (C column) from front to back. For cars, the column not only supports, but also acts as a door frame.
The designer must also consider the angle of the front pillar blocking the driver’s line of sight when considering the geometric scheme of the front pillar. In general, when the driver passes through the line of sight at the front column, the binocular overlap angle is 5 ~ 6 degrees in total. From the perspective of the driver’s comfort, the smaller the overlap angle is, the better. However, this involves the stiffness of the front column. It is a contradictory problem to have a certain geometric size to maintain the high stiffness of the front column and reduce the influence of the driver’s line of sight occlusion. Designers must try to balance the two to achieve the best results. At the 2001 North American International Auto Show, Volvo Sweden introduced the latest concept car SCC, which changed the front pillar to a transparent form and inlaid with transparent glass, so that the driver can observe the outside world through the pillar, so as to minimize the blind spot of vision
The center pillar not only supports the roof cover, but also bears the supporting force of the front and rear doors. Some additional parts should be installed on the center pillar, such as the safety belt of the front seat, and sometimes the wire harness should be worn. Therefore, most of the middle columns have convex radius to ensure better force transfer performance. The cross-section shape of the center pillar of modern cars is relatively complex. It is welded by multiple stamping steel plates. With the development of automobile manufacturing technology, the closed section middle column which directly adopts hydraulic forming without welding has come out. Its stiffness is greatly improved and its weight is greatly reduced, which is conducive to the lightweight of modern cars.
However, some designers simply cancel the center pillar in consideration of the convenience of passengers getting on and off the bus. The most typical is the French Citroen C3 car. The center pillars on the left and right sides of the body are cancelled. The front and rear doors are opened opposite, and the passengers can get on and off completely without obstacles. Of course, to cancel the center pillar, the front and rear pillars must be strengthened accordingly. The body structure must use new forms, and the selection of materials is also different.
The difference between the rear column and the front column and the middle column is that there are no problems such as line of sight occlusion and getting on and off obstacles. Therefore, it doesn’t matter if the structural size is larger. The key is that the sealing between the rear column and the vehicle body should be reliable.
Stiffness is the index of automobile body design. Stiffness refers to the ability that the body is not easy to deform when applying ordinary external forces that will not destroy the body, that is, the elastic deformation ability to restore the original shape. The car will deform under the influence of various external forces during driving. A small degree of deformation means good stiffness. Generally, good stiffness and strength. Cars with poor stiffness are prone to creak when driving on uneven roads. The stiffness of the column largely determines the overall stiffness of the body. Therefore, in the whole body structure, the column is the key component, which should have high stiffness

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